There are two basic types of kiln: intermittent and continuous. With an intermittent kiln, the wares are placed inside, then the kiln is heated up and allowed to cool after the appropriate period. Continuous kilns are more common in industrial applications and are built in the form of a tunnel where only the central section is heated and the wares move through on a trolley. An alternative arrangement is to have the heating on a moveable track to pass over the wares. Either of these is more energy efficient than repeatedly heating and cooling the same area but is not practical for the hobby enthusiast or a small scale operation.
Function of a kiln lining
Kiln linings are the materials used inside ceramic kilns. The purpose of a kiln lining is to prevent the kiln walls from overheating and energy being wasted. This can be achieved using dense firebricks and Refractory Mortar, insulation bricks and refractory mortar, refractory castable or ceramic fibre (usually in the form of modules). Low thermal mass materials have the advantage of higher turnaround as the kiln will heat up and cool down quickly, whereas higher thermal mass materials are more rugged and wear resistant.
Read our article to find out more about kilns and kiln linings.
Properties of kiln linings
Aside from the materials being low thermal mass, the materials should also be lightweight such as with insulation bricks (Grade 26) and ceramic fibre products, so as to reduce the cooling time of the kiln after firing. The insulation bricks should be used in conjunction with Vitset 45 refractory mortar. Tunnel kilns with consistent temperature do not require the mortar as they are usually lined with dense firebricks like our clay firebricks with 42% alumina content.
The materials should also be low in iron since the work is commonly white in colour and excessive iron pickup will generate black or green spots in combination with the ceramic being fired. Therefore, it is also crucial to coat ceramic fibre with Zircon paint refractory coating to avoid stray fibres dropping onto the work, especially if it is glazed work.
- Vitset 45-Refractory Mortar Ready Mixed 1700°CAs low as £17.99 £14.99
Vitset 45 - Redy Mix Refractory Mortar - withstands temperatures up to 1700°C / 3100°F. Used for trowelling, patching and setting refractory and insulation firebricks of all grades rating higher than 1400oC, and ceramic fibre boards and blankets.Read more
- Insulating Fire Bricks-Vitcas Grade 26 2600°F/ 1430°CSpecial Price £3.35 £2.79 Regular Price £8.39
Vitcas Insulation Fire Bricks- Grade 26. Resistant to 1430oC (2600oF). Dimensions: 230x114x76mm. The insulating firebricks can be used in a variety of high temperature industrial applications, such as in insulating refractories- gas producers, kilns, furnaces and stress relieving furnaces.Read more
- Vitset 80-Refractory Mortar Ready Mixed 1750°CSpecial Price £66.00 £55.00 Regular Price £96.00
Vitcas Refractory Mortar- Vitset 80 is a ready mixed, ready-to-use, high alumina, heat resistant cement. It is air setting and is suitable to use in setting, dipping, coating and spraying refractory bricks. This can be used in different industrial settings such as the steel industry and in foundries.Read more
- Insulating Fire Bricks-Vitcas Grade 23 - 2300°F/ 1260°CSpecial Price £3.00 £2.50 Regular Price £7.19
Vitcas Insulation Firebricks- Grade 23. Resistant to a high temperature of 1260oC / 2300oF. Dimensions: 230x114x76mm. Ideal for situations where heat storage properties are not desired, and for insulating in different refractories- ceramic kilns, furnaces, flues and other high temperature industrila equipment.Read more
- Ceramic Fibre Blanket 1260°CAs low as £70.80 £59.00
VITCAS Ceramic Fibre Blanket. Resistant to maximum service temperature of 1260oC / 2300oF. Density of 128kg/m3. Available in thickness of 13mm, 25mm and 50mm. Can be utilised in many industries such as petrochemical, steel and ceramics industries. Often used as insulation or for lining of furnaces.Read more
- Insulating Fire Bricks-Vitcas Grade 28 -2800°F/ 1530°CSpecial Price £4.56 £3.80 Regular Price £9.59
Vitcas Insulation Firebricks- Grade 28. Dimensions: 230x114x76mm. Resistant to 1530oC / 2800oF. The lightweight insulating fire bricks can be used in different industrial applications such as in lining ceramic kilns and furnaces, in areas that are not in contact with molten materials, etc.Read more
- BIO Soluble Insulation Blanket 1200°C -25mm per MetreSpecial Price £14.39 £11.99 Regular Price £21.59
Bio soluble fibre insulation blanket can withstand temperatures of up to 1200ºC/ 2192ºF. It has a very low risk of hazard and is safe in use due to its low bio persistence and bio-degradability. Dimensions: 25mm thick, 610mm wide with a density of 128KG/m³.Read more
- Ceramic Fibre Blanket 1430°CAs low as £95.99 £79.99
VITCAS Ceramic Fibre Blanket. Resistant to 1430oC / 2600oF. Density of 128kg/m3. Available in thickness of 13mm, 25mm and 50mm. Can be used in ceramic kilns and in firing stoneware, in making of porcelain or bone china, and in stress relieving insulation, fire protection and power generation.Read more
- Insulating Fire Bricks-Vitcas Grade 30 -3000°F/ 1650°CSpecial Price £5.88 £4.90 Regular Price £11.94
Vitcas Insulation Firebricks- Grade 30. Dimensions: 230x114x76mm. Rates at 1650oC / 3000oF. The lightweight insulation fire bricks can be used for industrial applications such as in hot blast stoves, as primary hot face linings, for back up insulation for kilns and furnaces and for flue insulation.Read more
- Refractory Castable Grade 1700°CSpecial Price £47.99 £39.99 Regular Price £59.99
VITCAS Refractory Castable 1700 this material is suitable for use in a home foundry project as the material for lining a metal drum to make a small scale crucible furnace. Suitable even for melting cast iron.Read more
- Ceramic Fibre Board 1260°C-VITCAS Insulating BoardAs low as £71.99 £59.99
Vitcas Ceramic Fibre Insulating Board. Resistant to 1260oC/ 2300oF. Dimensions: 1200x1000x25mm and 1200x1000x50mm. Has a low heat conductivity at high temperatures and resists high gas velocity, which makes it ideal for boiler ducts, for kiln linings in glass and ceramics and for stack lining.Read more
- VITCAS Ceramic Fibre RigidiserSpecial Price £35.99 £29.99 Regular Price £59.99
Vitcas Ceramic Fibre Rigidiser- a silicate compound. The rigidiser is used for coating the surfaces of ceramic fibre materials. These include the ones used in ceramic kilns, forges and those exposed to high velocity gases. The product acts as a hardener and sealant for these different ceramic fibre surfaces.Read more
- Vitcas Refractory Castable Grade 1600°C-Refractory ConcreteSpecial Price £41.99 £34.99 Regular Price £47.99
Castable Refractory (Refractory Concrete) is used for repairs to boiler linings, boiler doors and incinerator linings. For use where localised temperatures are higher; for example in gas or oil burner blocks and where forced air is being used.Read more
- Ceramic Fibre Board 1430°C-VITCAS Insulating BoardAs low as £95.99 £79.99
VITCAS Ceramic Fibre Insulating Fibre Board is resistant to 1430oC / 2600oF. Dimensions: 1200x1000x25mm and 1200x1000x50mm. Due to its high heat resistance and lower thermal mass, heating/ cooling takes quicker and makes it ideal for glass slumping and ceramic kilns.Read more
- VITCAS Zircon Paint Coating 1750°C£47.99 £39.99
VITCAS Zircon Refractory Paint Coating. It has a creamy consistency and can be applied directly. For spray application, it has to be thinned with water. Its maximum service temperature is of 1750°C / 3180°F. For use on furnaces, ladles, molten alloys, ceramic fibre linings and glass.Read more
- Silcas M-White Refractory Mortar 1430°CAs low as £15.59 £12.99
VITCAS Silcas M - Air Setting Ready Mixed Refractory Mortar for lightweight firebricks and insulation materials up to 1430°C / 2600°F. It is a white refractory mortar so may be used where white mortar is needed for visual and aesthetic purposes. Used for setting and jointing of bricks and other products.Read more
- Ceramic Fibre Blanket 1260°C -per MetreAs low as £11.99 £9.99
VITCAS Ceramic Fibre Insulation Blanket has a low thermal conductivity, high tensile strength and can withstand temperatures of up to 1260ºC/ 2300ºF. This grade of material can be purchased by the metre. Dimensions: 25mm and 13mm thick, 610mm wide; density: 128KG/m³. Free of asbestos so safe to use.Read more